Monrovia Real Estate, Homes and Condos for sale

All Monrovia homes currently listed for sale in Monrovia as of 11/24/2017 are shown below.  You can change the search criteria at any time by pressing the 'Change Search' button below.

If you have any questions or you would like more information about any Monrovia homes for sale or other Monrovia real estate, please contact us and one of our knowledgeable Monrovia REALTORS® would be pleased to assist you.


Sort:
Show:
View:  
  Page 1 of 3  
 
$3,250,000
325 N Terrace View Drive, Monrovia CA 91016
5
BEDS
6
BATHS
5,906
SQFT
$550
$/SQFT
1.07
ACRES
"Huge Price Reduction! ARCADIA SCHOOLS! Exclusive Terrace View Estates, adjacent to the desirable community of Whispering Pine. This Extravagant French Tuscan home sits upon an elevated 1+ acre lot located in a Gated Community. View, View, View of City Lights from the Front of the Home!!! Entry foyer has Custom Design 9' Front doors leading into the Exquisite Formal Living Room, Dining Room and Fireplace with Mini-Candelabra lights. Huge Centrally located Family Room including large wet bar with Built-in Wine Cooler and Seating area. Beautiful Kitchen includes Massive island. Recessed and Decorative Ceiling Strip Lighting throughout. Enter though the Grandiose doors into the Old English Style Library with Built-in Shelving. Guest Suite Downstairs next to the large laundry room. Over sized Dramatic Staircase leading upstairs has window at the landing with City Views. Enter a Foyer to the Super Large Master Suite with Retreat and Fireplace on one side and the Master bathroom with Marble counter top tub, separate Shower, 2 large walk-in closets on the other. Open Loft being used as an Office has Views from the Balcony. Bonus Room includes a built-in Frig., sink and counter can be used as the 5th Suite Spiral staircase leads up to finished Attic above. RV parking. Professionally landscaped with fruit trees, kumquat, loquat, pear, orange, lemon, grapefruit to name a few. Custom Waterfall to enjoy Stunning View while Relaxing. Come make this your Shangri-la."
* LISTED OVER 120 DAYS  * PRICE LOWERED - $3,800,000 TO $3,250,000 
$1,999,000
537 Cloverleaf Drive, Monrovia CA 91016
3
BEDS
2
BATHS
2,683
SQFT
$745
$/SQFT
4.88
ACRES
"Approx 4.88 acres. This lush property is nestled in Cloverleaf Canyon. Very private and peaceful location, with stable, riding rings, and riding and hiking trails. There are a few flat pads on the property to build an estate or keep the same and rehab the current house on the property. The property also has a guest house with a storage structure. This property has many possibilities. Buyer to check with city."
* LISTED OVER 120 DAYS 
$1,999,000
539 Cloverleaf Drive, Monrovia CA 91016
4
BEDS
3
BATHS
2,390
SQFT
$836
$/SQFT
14.97
ACRES
"Approx. 14.97 acres. This lush property is nestled in Cloverleaf Canyon. Very private and peaceful location, with stable, riding rings and riding and hiking trails. There are a few flat pads on the property to build an estate or keep the same and rehab the current house on the property. The property also has a guest house with a storage structure. This property as many possibilities. Buyer to check with city."
* LISTED OVER 120 DAYS 
$1,600,000
222 E Cypress Avenue, Monrovia CA 91016
8
BEDS
1
BATHS
2,736
SQFT
$585
$/SQFT
0.75
ACRES
"VALUE PRIMARILY IN THE LAND. HUGE FLAT LOT. Total lot size over 32,000 sqft with approximately 180 frontage and 180 depth (180 X 180) per assessor records. Located in the desirable city of Monrovia, north of the 210 freeway. Existing house is 2,736 sqft per assessor records. PERFECT FOR A BUILDER OR INVESTOR! DON T MISS THIS GREAT DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY!"
$1,499,000
140 E Hillcrest Boulevard, Monrovia CA 91016
4
BEDS
4
BATHS
3,994
SQFT
$375
$/SQFT
0.33
ACRES
"California Estate. This updated 1920's home encompasses an impressive double lot featuring a tranquil Koi pond surrounded by an elegant, elaborate garden. The 3,994 square foot home has 4 bedrooms, 4 bathrooms, and a fully enclosed loft. This home also features a beautiful, classic office with built-in, dark wood cabinets. The large family room has a cozy fire place and is connected to an incredible, covered patio where you can enjoy the serenity of the property and view the amazing sunsets. The patio overlooks a sizable BBQ area to enjoy the outdoor space that this grand estate has to offer. The detached double car garage has a bonus room with shower and bathroom. This lot sits in a quiet neighborhood with fresh air from the mountains behind and walking distance to the quaint restaurants and shops of downtown Monrovia."
$1,490,000
759 Norumbega Drive, Monrovia CA 91016
4
BEDS
3
BATHS
2,401
SQFT
$621
$/SQFT
0.64
ACRES
"As you wind your way up the hills of Monrovia, the stresses of the day slip away. The city noise disappears and the quiet of an old time neighborhood surrounds you. Pulling into your two car garage, the simplicity of this completely remodeled mid-century modern home greets you. In the refrigerator you pull out some freshly picked lemons from your backyard orchard and drop a slice into a cool drink as you saunter across the living room. Looking out through the large windows you'd swear you were in a tree house, but this tree house has four bedrooms and three bathrooms. You smile as you open the glass doors, step out onto your balcony, and feel a fresh breeze as you survey your expansive, meticulously landscaped yard. The blue of the pool inspires images of David Hockney pool parties. There's a knock at your door. Your friends have arrived. It's time to forget the world and enjoy those around you. Downstairs you all head to the pool room which invites the outside in. Guacamole from your own avocado trees serves as an appetizer. Once your stomachs begin to growl a bit louder, it is back upstairs for a meal prepared in your gourmet kitchen. This is the life. The one you dreamt of all those years ago up in that tree house. Welcome home."
* PRICE LOWERED - $1,525,000 TO $1,490,000 
$1,398,000
779 Norumbega Drive, Monrovia CA 91016
2
BEDS
2
BATHS
1,738
SQFT
$804
$/SQFT
0.75
ACRES
"LUXURY MODERN ARCHITECTURAL HOME WITH WORLD CLASS DESIGN, AND WORLD CLASS PANORAMIC VIEW! THIS HOME IS PERCHED HIGH ABOVE THE SAN GABRIEL MOUNTAINS ON 3/4 OF AN ACRE. PRIVATE ROAD LEADS TO MAJESTIC VIEWS: DESIGNED AND COMPLETELY REBUILT FROM THE GROUND UP AND STRIPPED TO THE STUDS IN 2015, BY A WEST HOLLYWOOD ARCHITECT. BUILT FOR ENTERTAINING WITH FLOOR TO CEILING GLASS OPENING OUT TO THE MASSIVE DECK WITH FIRE-PIT, BUILT IN BARBECUE, BUILT IN BAR, PERFECT FOR OPEN AIR DINING. FEATURING; HIGH PITCHED CEILINGS THROUGH OUT, WITH DESIGNER PITCH; HARDWOOD FLOORS ; RECESSED AND SOFT LIGHTING THROUGHOUT; CHEFS KITCHEN TASTEFULLY DESIGNED AND DECORATED; MASTER SUITE WITH CUSTOM WALK IN CLOSET; MASTER BATHROOM HAS EXCEPTIONAL DESIGN WITH MASSIVE GLASS SHOWER CASING; PARAPET WALLS; ROOF DRAINS INSIDE THE WALLS; STAINLESS STEEL FASCIA; SOLID FIR DOORS THROUGHOUT INCLUDING FRONT DOOR AND BUILT IN BOOK SHELF; BUILT IN AUDIO VIDEO EQUIPMENT FOR BOTH INSIDE AND OUTSIDE OF THE HOME; ITALIAN HARDWARE ON ALL DOORS & BATHROOM FIXTURES; FLEETWOOD SLIDING LOW E. GLASS DOORS FOR WALL TO CEILING GLASS; TANKLESS WATER HEATER; PROFESSIONALLY HARDSCAPE AND LANDSCAPED WITH STUNNING OUTDOOR LIGHTING, WHICH HAS BEEN FEATURED ON YOUTUBE; 2 STORAGE SHEDS; ORANGE, AVOCADO, GRAPEFRUIT, LEMON & TANGERINE TREES. NEW ASPHALT PRIVATE ROAD; PROFESSIONALLY INSTALLED SECURITY CAMERAS BY AN LAPD OFFICER PROVIDING UNCOMPROMISING SECURITY. 2 BEDROOM 2 BATH, 1738 SQ FT OF LIVING SPACE, 32482 SQ FT LOT."
$1,249,000
1830 S Mayflower Avenue, Monrovia CA 91016
5
BEDS
3
BATHS
2,713
SQFT
$460
$/SQFT
0.24
ACRES
"Attention All Buyers and Investors!!! This beautiful 2 Story Home in the City of Monrovia will not last!! 5 Bedrooms, 3 Bath with over 2700 Sq.Ft! Huge over sized Lot over 10,000! 3 Car Garage! 2 Fountains. Beautiful Jacuzzi that overflows into the amazing pool. Outside patio with ceiling fans, Concrete area, Upgraded Hardscape and fruit trees. On the inside, Crown Moldings Throughout. 1 Bedroom and 1 Bath on main level. Beautiful Kitchen with Granite counters and Huge pantry. Kitchen overlooks living room and breakfast nook. Features Tile floors Throughout and a Fireplace in the formal living room area, Formal Dining area . On the second level, Wood Railing and wood Floors. Large Master Bedroom with Double sink, Walk in closet and stand up shower and oval tub. Overside Bedrooms with ceiling fans. This property will not last!"
* PRICE LOWERED - $1,250,000 TO $1,249,000 
$1,068,888
630 W Hillcrest Boulevard, Monrovia CA 91016
3
BEDS
2
BATHS
2,323
SQFT
$460
$/SQFT
0.26
ACRES
"Quietly located on the mountainside of North Monrovia, this home provides both serenity and elegance from a historical community and modern perks a home buyer craving for. The spacious backyard have a large deck area for entertainment. Just a few blocks away from the award-winning Mayflower Elementary School. Main house newly remodeled: *New hardwood entry door, *New paint for all interior walls, *New bathroom counter tops, *Master bedroom new floor *New garden gate, Landscaping redesigned, *New water heater, *New pool pump. Make an offer and your dream home awaits!"
* LISTED OVER 120 DAYS  * PRICE LOWERED - $1,098,888 TO $1,068,888 
$1,058,800
820 Norumbega Drive, Monrovia CA 91016
3
BEDS
2
BATHS
1,558
SQFT
$680
$/SQFT
0.28
ACRES
"Nestled in the Foothills of North Monrovia - 3 Bed 2 Bath - Single Story - Pool - 12,166 sf Lot - Fresh Modern Design & Finishes throughout- The home offers a modern open floor plan with California Indoor / Outdoor living in mind. The amenities and list of improvements seem to be endless. Interior - New Dual Pane Windows - New wide plank Real Hardwood flooring - New 4 Ton A/C & Heating with all new ducting - All New Plumbing, Sinks & Fixtures - New LED Recessed Lighting - All New Mill Work complete with Doors, Hardware and Crown Molding - Chefs Kitchen featuring Stainless Viking Appliances, New Quartz & Marble Countertops, Island with Sink & Disposal with all new Espresso Shaker Cabinets - Living area with wood/gas burning modern fireplace - Large indoor/outdoor dining area with 12' folding dual pane doors- Updated/Remodeled restrooms - Master Bath finished with Valantino Marble and 1/2 Tempered Glass surround and walkin closet - Fresh interior paint and smooth wall & ceiling finish- Exterior - New Roof- New Garage Door- New Santa Barbara style smooth wall finish -Remodeled Pool complete with Pebble Tech , New Tile ,New Poured in place coping and all new pool decking- The entire 12,166 sf lot was professionally landscaped and is complete with underground drainage, and automatic irrigation- New Redwood deck - No surface has been left untouched- This is a must see property that will not last long-"
$1,048,000
837 Crescent Drive, Monrovia CA 91016
3
BEDS
2
BATHS
1,888
SQFT
$555
$/SQFT
1.57
ACRES
"Sitting high above the City of Monrovia against the foothills, this mid-century modern home has so much to offer. The gated driveway leads you to the house that is surrounded by oak, avocado, nut and citrus trees. The 1.5+ acre property provides hiking trails to see deer, hawks and various other wildlife as well as spectacular views of the San Gabriel Valley. Custom built by the original owner in 1948, this home features 3 bedrooms with built in closets, 2 bathrooms, an indoor laundry room and inviting kitchen with lots of storage space. The kitchen dining area has a gorgeous view of the property and is drenched in natural light. The large living room is where you will want to spend all of your time with the huge fireplace, concrete floors, exposed beam ceiling and endless view from the south-facing windows. Buyers will benefit from recent upgrades to the main breaker and touch plates, hot water heater, HVAC system and newer roof. The landscaping has also been updated with new front fence and electric gates, enlarged parking with retaining walls, RV parking, landscape lighting and irrigation valves and modern garage doors with openers. This home offers the best of both worlds! Peaceful seclusion and tranquility while being just minutes from freeways and a city filled with small town charm and a revitalized downtown area of shopping and eateries. Come take a look and fall in love with this beautiful home!"
$989,950
1020 Briarcliff Road, Monrovia CA 91016
4
BEDS
2
BATHS
2,034
SQFT
$487
$/SQFT
0.87
ACRES
"**Fixer**Single story home located in the hills of Monrovia offering city light views. Features include 4 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, a living room and dining area with fireplace, kitchen with built-in appliances, central air and heat, wood deck, yard and a 2 car garage."
* LISTED OVER 120 DAYS 
$975,000
549 Fano Street, Monrovia CA 91016
3
BEDS
2
BATHS
1,680
SQFT
$580
$/SQFT
0.43
ACRES
"This property is a Builder's Dream Opportunity. There are two parcels to be sold together. 551 Fano St - APN #8507-011-045 (CV17116390) is the second parcel. You can merge the two parcels together allowing 5 Single Family Residential homesites in the amazing area of Monrovia. Both parcels are zoned PD-11 one house per 7500 SF."
* LISTED OVER 120 DAYS 
$975,000
551 Fano Street, Monrovia CA 91016
2
BEDS
1
BATHS
820
SQFT
$1,189
$/SQFT
0.43
ACRES
"This property is a Builder's Dream Opportunity. There are two parcels to be sold together. 549 Fano St - APN #8507-011-044 (CV17116441) is the second parcel. You can merge the two parcels together allowing 5 Single Family Residential homesites in the amazing area of Monrovia. Both parcels are zoned PD-11 one house per 7500 SF."
* LISTED OVER 120 DAYS 
$839,000
807 Norumbega Drive, Monrovia CA 91016
4
BEDS
2
BATHS
2,010
SQFT
$417
$/SQFT
0.39
ACRES
"Excellent area in North Monrovia on a quiet cul-de-sac. 2 story home with some view of Valley. Priced low (Needs upgrading) Huge deck and extra workshop off garage"
* LISTED OVER 120 DAYS  * PRICE LOWERED - $850,000 TO $839,000 
$800,000
310 E Wildrose Avenue, Monrovia CA 91016
3
BEDS
2
BATHS
1,724
SQFT
$464
$/SQFT
0.17
ACRES
"Situated in the heart of Monrovia, sits this beautiful 3 bedroom, 2 bathroom Historic Landmark Craftsman Bungalow. Sit on the wrap-around porch to watch the sun set, relax in the backyard under a gazebo in the hot tub, or transport yourself to when this home was built with its unique original features throughout. Upon walking through the large front door, one is instantly struck by glistening hardwood floors, original beveled glass windows overlooking the porch, box beam ceilings, & the room's statement piece: an original river rock fireplace and mantle. This true historic landmark 1911 craftsman home has not been on the market in over half a century & was maintained with an attention to detail to make it your own!"
* PRICE LOWERED - $825,000 TO $800,000 
$799,000
709 E Lemon Avenue, Monrovia CA 91016
3
BEDS
2
BATHS
1,440
SQFT
$555
$/SQFT
0.16
ACRES
"Meticulously updated, move-in ready modern, mid-century 3 bed / 2 bath home with bonus, detached, ~325 sq. ft. room that can be the perfect home office/game room/short-term rental income. A designer s/artists dream! Located in the heart of Monrovia with mountain views. ~ Details Kitchen; stainless steel appliances with Bosch double oven & dishwasher Skylights; 3 (able to open, screened) Velux skylights - with remote Floors; hardwood, tile & restored/polished concrete floors Windows; dual pane custom framed with Mangaris wood Yard; professionally landscaped & lit, drought-tolerant Speakers; custom-built, installed in wall, inside & out Lighting; recessed LED throughout home Doors; solid wood, bespoke hardware Closets; customized in 2 bedrooms Alarm; system throughout ~ Neighborhood Front of house overlooks Recreation Park , a 22 acre green space park, complete with children s play area, soccer field, lighted basketball, baseball & tennis courts and adjacent to the YMCA & 24 Hour Fitness School; less than one block from Bradoaks Elementary School Walking distance to Old Town Monrovia on Myrtle Ave. Conveniently located to both 210 & 605 freeways"
* NEW LISTING 
$775,000
336 Heather Heights Court, Monrovia CA 91016
3
BEDS
2
BATHS
1,977
SQFT
$392
$/SQFT
0.15
ACRES
"A fabulous investment awaiting its return to the charm and elegance it deserves. Rare offering in the highly sought after community of North Monrovia, this Spanish style home just needs some TLC. Within close proximity to Old Town dining and shopping, Farmer s Market, and the new Gold Line station are just minutes away. Old Town is the heart of Monrovia - it offers a sense of place for residents and businesses. Considered by the community to be the heart of Monrovia, Old Town is a unique downtown environment where you'll find a variety of boutique shops, exciting dining options, luxury living, and entertainment for the whole family. Settled at the foothills of the San Gabriel mountains, Monrovia is easy to get to and hard to leave. Monrovia offers small-town charm in one of the most vibrant regions in the nation. Mills Act may be available for this property and can help the new owner bring it back to its original charm and elegance."
* PRICE LOWERED - $799,000 TO $775,000 
$769,000
601 Terrado Drive, Monrovia CA 91016
3
BEDS
2
BATHS
1,369
SQFT
$562
$/SQFT
0.20
ACRES
"Welcome to 601 Terrado Drive. This beautiful, turnkey ranch-style home is located in a highly desirable area of East Monrovia, adjacent to Bradbury, the Royal Oaks trail and within walking distance to nearby shopping and restaurants, and just minutes from the Gold Line. With great curb appeal, this home features 1,369 square feet of living space with three bedrooms and two baths. Gleaming hardwood floors welcome you to a tastefully updated open-concept living space with plenty of natural light. This home features recessed lighting, two recently remodeled bathrooms, dual-pane windows and plantation shutters throughout, fresh interior and exterior paint, two-car detached garage, new garage door and plenty of outdoor space to enjoy views of the foothills and mature trees. Additional features include new quartz counter tops in the kitchen, newer roof, central air and heat with updated ducting throughout. This move-in ready house is just waiting to be called HOME."
$768,000
408 W Walnut Avenue, Monrovia CA 91016
5
BEDS
3
BATHS
1,836
SQFT
$418
$/SQFT
0.19
ACRES
"This delightful home has an open floor plan with 5 bedrooms and 3 bathrooms. The spacious rear yard has sufficient room for a pool or future additions."
$758,000
1021 Royal Oaks Drive, Monrovia CA 91016
3
BEDS
2
BATHS
1,512
SQFT
$501
$/SQFT
0.13
ACRES
"Absolutely charming single family home w/ numerous upgrades located in a spectacular Monrovia neighborhood. This delightful 3-bed, 2-bath home has a huge living room w/ fireplace, large remodeled kitchen w/ granite counters & stainless steel appliances, and a charming dining nook w/ bay windows looking out to the freshly landscaped backyard. The house has been extensively remodeled with a newer central air & heat system, gleaming hardwood floors throughout, noise reduction windows, etc. Both bathrooms were recently remodeled, including the stunning master bath. The 3rd bedroom is currently used an office and was recently painted. Both the master suite and living room open to the lovely landscaped backyard & patio w/ a newer water fountain, newer walls & brick work, as well as side gate. The attached 2-car garage was recently finished, and has ample storage cabinets, a work bench, finished floors, laundry area, electric-car plug-in, and new garage door opener. Do not miss this fabulous opportunity to own a truly turnkey home in a convenient Monrovia location near schools, parks, running/riding trails, transportation, shopping, and dining!"
$750,000
424 W Scenic Drive, Monrovia CA 91016
4
BEDS
2
BATHS
1,863
SQFT
$403
$/SQFT
0.14
ACRES
"Recent Price Reduction - This North Monrovia pool home features 4 bedrooms two baths and is located at the end of a tree lined cul-de-sac street. With partial mountain views from the front yard and from two of the three upstairs bedroom windows, this home is ready for your creative touches. Recently painted inside, the home offers a terrazzo tile entry, downstairs bedroom/den, full bath and living room with gas fireplace and an open kitchen and dining room. Head upstairs and you will find three bedrooms and one full bath. There is an attached two car garage with access to a side yard and kitchen door entry. Here's your chance to own a wonderful home in a city filled with small town charm, a great downtown vibe and close proximity to local area shopping, transportation and freeway access. Welcome Home."
* PRICE LOWERED - $780,000 TO $750,000 
$718,000
149 N MAGNOLIA Avenue, Monrovia CA 91016
3
BEDS
2
BATHS
1,144
SQFT
$628
$/SQFT
0.14
ACRES
"CHARMING CRAFTSMAN HOME LOCATED IN A DESIRABLE NORTH MONROVIA LOCATION! COMPLETELY REMODELED AND UPDATED ELOQUENTLY AND TASTEFULLY, WITH ALL THE MODERN CONVENIENCES OF TODAY WITH OLD WORLD CHARM! FEATURING; TURN-KEY CONDITION; 3 BEDROOM, 2 BATHROOM; BONUS MEDIA ROOM AND BONUS WORKOUT ROOM IN THE FINISHED BASEMENTS; HIGH CEILINGS WITH BUILT-INS AND CROWN MOULDING; BLONDE-OAK HARDWOOD FLOORS; MASTER SUITE LEADS OUT TO THE DARLING COVERED BACK PORCH; CHEFS KITCHEN WITH STAINLESS STEEL APPLIANCES; KEYLESS ENTRY; AUTOMATIC LIGHTS; REMOTE THERMOSTAT (NEST); COMPOUND STYLE FENCING AND SOLAR POWERED DRIVEWAY GATE; COPPER PLUMBING; NEWER ELECTRICAL PANEL AND REWIRED; STUNNING BACKYARD WITH SPARKLING GARDEN POOL WITH DROUGHT TOLERANT ARTIFICIAL GRASS; BEAUTIFULLY LANDSCAPED; LARGE DREAM-LIKE FRONT PORCH; OVERSIZED 2 CAR GARAGE WITH 2 PARKING SPACES INSIDE OF DRIVEWAY GATE; BOLTED FOUNDATION; THIS HOME IS PERFECT FOR SUMMER NIGHTS IN THE BACKYARD WITH FIRE-PIT AND BARBECUE! AWARD WINING MAYFLOWER SCHOOL DISTRICT; DONT MISS THIS FINE OPPORTUNITY."
* NEW LISTING 
$717,500
906 W Colorado Boulevard, Monrovia CA 91016
3
BEDS
2
BATHS
1,478
SQFT
$485
$/SQFT
0.17
ACRES
"Do you love Monrovia?, But don't love the age of most homes out there as they tend to need lot's of love and care to bring them up to today's style and standards? Well my seller feels the same way too and we've decided to bring you this freshly remodeled beauty. Featuring a well laid out 3 bedroom 2 bath home that screams 2017. It's all new for you to enjoy, our rehab includes a new roof, kitchen cabinets and counter tops, brand new appliances, and more. Step into a tasteful open living area that keeps the dining and Kitchen all in sight for your family to enjoy time together. Modern paint colors inside and out. Master bedroom is a recent room addition along with the master bath. The other 2 rooms have been renovated along with the hallway bathroom. We have a huge lot with a detached 2 car garage and plenty of space for your kids to come out and play in their own back yard. Walking distance to schools and down town Monrovia. There's too much to list, come check it out before it's sold."
* PRICE LOWERED - $729,900 TO $717,500 
 
View:  
  Page 1 of 3  
 

Explore Monrovia Communities

Choose a community below to view homes, condos and Real Estate for sale.

Sign up today and you'll be eligible to win an iPad!

 Properties Available
Get Unlimited Search Access
Free & complete access in seconds...
Join now (it's free):
Name (first/last)
 
Email Address
Phone
 
Member sign in:
Email Address
* By signing up today your name will be entered in a monthly iPad giveaway.  You will be notified via email if you win.  No purchase is necessary to participate.